La pollution : facteur aggravant du coronavirus ?

Coronavirus : transmission de patients à soignants

La pollution aux particules fines, fléau de nos sociétés industrielles, pourrait-elle être un vecteur favorable à la transmission du virus Covid-19 et à sa pénétration dans les poumons des personnes fortement exposées à cette pollution de l’air ? L’hypothèse est aujourd’hui étudiée par les chercheurs.  Des chercheurs et scientifiques travaillent actuellement sur une relation possible entre la pollution, notamment aux particules fines, et la propagation du Covid-19.  

Une hypothèse plus que plausible ?  

Il semblerait que les particules fines pourraient, dans certaines conditions, transporter le virus. Éric Poincelet est président de Pollutrack, un réseau exceptionnel de capteurs installés à Paris, qui mesurent la pollution en temps réel.

«On est aujourd’hui avec un virus qui est vraiment petit, donc qui est susceptible, effectivement, de suivre la pollution, et de pouvoir pénétrer à l’intérieur de l’organisme, en se servant comme cheval de Troie, des particules fines de la pollution ». (Éric Poincelet, président de Pollutrak à franceinfo)

48.000 décès par an en France dus à la pollution aux particules fines

Il faut dire qu’à elle seule, la pollution, notamment aux particules fines, provoque le décès prématuré de 48.000 personnes en France, par an. C’est plus que l’alcool, moins que le tabac, on en parle moins que la pandémie en cours, mais il semblerait qu’il y ait un lien entre les deux selon Éric Poincelet.  

Carte créée par la Nasa à partir des données du satellite Sentinel-5 de l’ESA montrant les concentrations en dioxyde d’azote en Chine, en janvier et février 2020. (ESA / NASA)

«Wuhan, le premier foyer du coronavirus a été une ville qui a connu des niveaux de pollution aux particules fines, pendant deux mois en continu, et donc il est possible que la population, ayant été surexposée à la pollution ait eu les alvéoles esquintées à cause de cette pollution, et qu’à ce moment-là, les poumons sont plus susceptibles d’être pénétrés par le virus. » (Éric Poincelet à franceinfo).

D’ailleurs, des photos satellites montrent que la diminution des activités en Chine réduisait fortement la pollution, et du coup, les gens respirent mieux. Cela prouverait que les foyers initiaux du coronavirus se développent surtout dans des zones polluées. Que ce soit à Wuhan, à Téhéran ou encore en Lombardie, la vulnérabilité des habitants, due à la pollution, notamment des particules fines, semble une hypothèse crédible.  

Des solutions concrètes et réalisables  

Donc, en diminuant la pollution on ralentirait la propagation du virus. Des poumons en meilleur santé résistent mieux, et la question du transport du virus par les particules fines reste ouverte. Eric Poincelet évoque l’exemple de la ville de Tokyo :

«La politique de santé publique qui a été mise en place par Tokyo, a eu des conséquences extraordinaires. Ils ont fait vraiment une priorité de la lutte contre les particules fines, en limitant notamment le diesel. On a vu une diminution considérable des nuits d’hospitalisation, une augmentation de la qualité de vie, donc ça marche ! »    

Des villes sans particules fines, ce devrait être la priorité, c’est d’ailleurs dans le programme des candidats sérieux aux municipales. En attendant, soyons prudents avec des gestes simples comme aérer son logement, aux heures les moins polluées.

Source : francetvinfo.fr

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