Lettre d’Adolfo Pérez Esquivel à Michelle Bachellet, Haute-Commissaire des Nations Unies aux droits de l’homme, sur les graves violations des droits de l’homme subies par le peuple rwandais [15.08.2020]

Michelle Bachellet, Haute-Commissaire des Nations Unies aux droits de l’homme

Mme Michelle Bachelet Haute-Commissaire des Nations Unies aux droits de l’homme. 

Recevez les salutations fraternelles de Paix et de bonheur.

Je vous écris en raison de ma profonde inquiétude face aux graves violations des droits de l’homme dont souffre le peuple rwandais. Je dois commencer par exprimer ma surprise et profond rejet du fait que le gouvernement de Paul Kagame s’est approprié quelque chose d’aussi sacré que le génocide rwandais de 1994, en l’utilisant systématiquement pour criminaliser globalement l’ensemble du groupe ethnique majoritaire et pour justifier les plus graves violations des droits de l’homme –y compris l’enlèvement, la torture et le meurtre– jusqu’à ce jour.

À votre poste, vous êtes certainement consciente de l’énorme pression qu’a subie votre prédécesseure Navanethem Pillay pour que l’expression “génocide hutu” soit retirée du magnifique Rapport Mapping publié par le Haut- Commissariat en octobre 2010. Le rapport qualifie de “crimes contre l’humanité, de crimes de guerre, voire de génocide” les crimes “systématiques, méthodiques et prémédités contre les Hutus, principalement les enfants, les femmes, les personnes âgées et les malades”, perpétrés par le FPR. En tout cas, même si le terme juste de “génocide” a été indignement éliminé, il est clair qu’il s’agit d’un grand génocide dont le Rapport Mapping n’a enquêté que sur la partie émergée de l’iceberg : 600 incidents violents, survenus au Zaïre-Congo seulement et de 1993 à 2003. Dès 1997, c’est-à-dire un an avant la deuxième et plus meurtrière invasion du Zaïre, le rapport de l’équipe de l’ONU dirigé par votre compatriote chilien Roberto Garretón, qui avait enquêté sur une quarantaine de sites au Congo, faisait état de 100 000 cadavres Hutus.

Et vous savez certainement aussi combien sont fondées les accusations du juge de l’Audience nationale espagnole Fernando Andreu Merelles sur les “crimes de génocide, crimes contre l’humanité, crimes contre les personnes et les biens protégés en cas de conflit armé, intégration dans une organisation terroriste, actes terroristes, pillage des ressources naturelles et assassinat de neuf citoyens espagnols” commis par le FPR dirigé par Paul Kagame d’une main de fer. Depuis la publication du Rapport Mapping, divers “experts”, institutions et ONG de défense des droits de l’homme ont semé la confusion dans l’opinion publique en affirmant qu’il est nécessaire de créer un tribunal ayant compétence pour juger les crimes que le rapport a mis en lumière. Mais ils sont bien conscients qu’un tel tribunal existe bel et bien et a déjà émis un mandat d’arrêt le 6 février 2008 contre 40 hauts fonctionnaires du FPR qui seraient responsables des crimes au Congo mentionnés dans le rapport. Un tel tribunal est l’Audiencia Nacional espagnole, qui est pleinement compétente pour juger de tels crimes en vertu du principe de justice universelle. Au moins, elle était compétente jusqu’à ce que la pression des puissants protecteurs internationaux de Paul Kagame réussisse à nouveau –comme le montrent plusieurs câbles de WikiLeaks– à obtenir du gouvernement espagnol la désactivation, pour l’instant, de cette juridiction universelle.

Le Rapport Gersony est un autre rapport honnête, fait en 1994 par le Haut-Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés ; un rapport également caché jusqu’en septembre 2010 et dont l’existence a même été niée par de hauts fonctionnaires de l’ONU ; un rapport qui documente cette fois-ci le nettoyage ethnique systématique à caractère génocidaire mené contre les Hutus par le FPR en 1994 à l’intérieur du Rwanda. L’équipe d’enquêteurs a compté le meurtre de quelque 30 000 Hutus par le FPR en seulement deux mois et dans seulement trois préfectures. Et il y a aussi encore les déclarations de l’ancienne procureur général du TPIR, Carla del Ponte, dénonçant la façon dont elle est tombée en disgrâce et a été démise de ses fonctions au moment même où elle a tenté de poursuivre un seul membre du FPR.

Combien de silences complices ont permis pendant de nombreuses années à ces personnes, accusées d’avoir commis les crimes les plus graves, habillées d’un faux halo moral autour du prétendu arrêt du génocide perpétré par les extrémistes hutus au printemps 1994, et de causer en toute impunité d’immenses souffrances au Rwanda et au Congo ! En 2010, le Rapport Mapping a brisé le code de l’omerta qui prévalait au sein de l’ONU sur ce qui doit certainement être considéré comme le plus grand génocide depuis la création de l’ONU : celui perpétré par le FPR du 1er octobre 1990 à nos jours. Des centaines de milliers de Hutus, en particulier tous ceux qui détenaient une sorte de pouvoir, ont été tués depuis lors en raison de leur appartenance ethnique. Ils ont été tués avant, pendant et après ce qu’on appelle les 100 jours de sang au printemps 1994. Comme vous le savez peut-être, selon le rapport exhaustif et documenté des chercheurs américains Christian Davenport et Allan C. Stam, même pendant ces cent jours tragiques, le nombre de victimes hutues a dépassé le nombre de victimes tutsies.

Je vous demande donc de veiller à ce que le Haut-Commissariat que vous dirigez élève à nouveau courageusement la voix, avec l’autorité morale qui lui est due, pour dénoncer toute cette situation injuste et en particulier les graves violations des droits de l’homme commises jour après jour par le gouvernement rwandais, que Paul Kagame préside alors qu’il est accusé des crimes les plus graves définis par la justice internationale. Des violations qui sont possibles et tolérées par la soi-disant communauté internationale en raison du faux status de victimes-libérateurs du génocide dont les membres du FPR de Paul Kagame ont été investis. Un FPR que le juge Fernando Andreu Merelles décrit au contraire comme une organisation terroriste. C’est pour cette raison que je me suis un peu arrêté pour exposer la fausseté de ce status. Mais maintenant, plus précisément, je demande à votre Haut-Commissariat de:

  • Dénoncer publiquement le harcèlement des opposants politiques (tels que Victoire Ingabire, Diane Rwigara, Bernard Ntaganda ou Déogratias Mushayidi), les disparitions et les meurtres de beaucoup d’entre eux. Et tous ceux qui osent dénoncer les crimes du gouvernement. Ou encore quiconque fait simplement référence à la souffrance des Hutus et ose dire qu’eux aussi devraient être considérés comme des victimes. Tout comme le chanteur Kizito Mihigo, ce qui lui a valu d’être vilainement assassiné, alors qu’il était un survivant du génocide contre les Tutsis en 1994 et que sa famille y a été décimée. Vous, qui avez vécu le meurtre de votre compatriote Victor Jara dans des circonstances similaires, et moi devons être particulièrement sensibles à des crimes comme celui de Kizito Mihigo. Dans le cas de Victoire, il faut rappeler l’arrêt de la Cour africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples en sa faveur et contre le gouvernement rwandais.
  • Exiger une enquête indépendante sur toutes ces disparitions et tous ces crimes.
  • Exiger une véritable ouverture politique.
  • Faire un appel à un dialogue inter-rwandais hautement inclusif.

Merci beaucoup déjà et nous espérons que votre Haut-Commissariat apportera à ces populations la lumière et le droit à la vérité et à la justice, chemins nécessaires pour affirmer la Paix.

Fraternellement

Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
Buenos Aires, le 15 août 2020
Piedras 730/ C/ 1070 -Buenos Aires-
secinstitucional@serpaj.org.ar

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